Stuart Campbell Ray, M.D.

Headshot of Stuart Campbell Ray
  • Vice Chair of Medicine for Data Integrity and Analytics, Department of Medicine
  • Professor of Medicine


Covid-19, HIV/AIDS, Infectious Disease, Internal Medicine, SARS-CoV-2, Viral Hepatitis more

Research Interests

Hepatitis C immunology; Hepatitis C virology; Viral Evolution; HIV pathogenesis; Computational biology; NanoDiagnostics more

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Main Phone

Outside of Maryland & Washington D.C.

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The Johns Hopkins Hospital

Appointment Phone: 410-583-2736
600 N. Wolfe Street
Nelson Building
Baltimore, MD 21287 map
Phone: 410-614-2891 | Fax: 443-769-1221


Stuart C. Ray, MD, FACP, FIDSA serves as Vice-Chair of Medicine for Data Integrity and Analytics, Assistant Dean for Research, and is a Professor in the Division of Infectious Diseases within the Department of Medicine, with a secondary appointment in Oncology. He is a virologist and clinical investigator in the Center for Viral Hepatitis Research in the Division of Infectious Diseases. He is a faculty member of the Janeway Firm of the Osler Medical Service, and the graduate programs in Immunology, Pharmacology, and Health Sciences Informatics. He is a member of the Johns Hopkins Medicine Data Trust Council, and Co-Chair of the Research Subcouncil.

Dr. Ray received his M.D. from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine in 1990. After an internship and residency at Johns Hopkins Hospital, he continued there as an Assistant Chief of Service and fellow in Infectious Diseases. During his fellowship, he studied the immunology and sequence variation of HIV in the laboratory of Dr. Robert Bollinger. During that time, he developed an interest in RNA virus evolution in productive collaborations with Dr. Robert Siliciano.

In 1997 Dr. Ray joined the Johns Hopkins faculty, and under the mentorship of Dr. David Thomas shifted his primary research focus to hepatitis C virus (HCV).  His laboratory work has focused on the evolution of HCV during acute and chronic infection, developing and applying computational and molecular biology tools to underlying mechanisms including stochastic variation, immune selection, and viral fitness. He continues to care for patients with HIV, HCV, and other infectious diseases. more


  • Vice Chair of Medicine for Data Integrity and Analytics, Department of Medicine
  • Research Subcouncil Co-Chair of the JHM Data Trust
  • Assistant Dean of Research
  • Professor of Medicine
  • Professor of Oncology

Departments / Divisions

Centers & Institutes



  • MD; Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (1990)


  • Internal Medicine; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (1993)


  • Infectious Diseases; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (1994)
  • Infectious Diseases; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (1997)

Board Certifications

  • American Board of Internal Medicine (Infectious Disease) (2014)
  • American Board of Internal Medicine (Internal Medicine) (1993)

Research & Publications

Research Summary

Dr. Ray's research focuses on viral evolution and human immunology, with a long-term interest in hepatitis C virus (HCV) sequence evolution and persistence. HCV affects more than millions of people in the United States and more than 100 million worldwide. Current treatment is highly effective but most infected people are unaware of their infection. Thus, Dr. Ray remains dedicated to enhanced screening, access to care, and rational vaccine development for HCV.

Technology Expertise Keywords

nanodiagnostics; computational biology; virology; immunology

Selected Publications

View all on PubMed

Ogega CO, Skinner NE, Blair PW, Park HS, Littlefield K, Ganesan A, Dhakal S, Ladiwala P, Antar AA, Ray SC, Betenbaugh MJ, Pekosz A, Klein SL, Manabe YC, Cox AL, Bailey JR. Durable SARS-CoV-2 B cell immunity after mild or severe disease. J Clin Invest. 2021 Apr 1;131(7). doi: 10.1172/JCI145516. PubMed PMID: 33571162; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC8011891

Thielen PM, Wohl S, Mehoke T, Ramakrishnan S, Kirsche M, Falade-Nwulia O, Trovão NS, Ernlund A, Howser C, Sadowski N, Morris CP, Hopkins M, Schwartz M, Fan Y, Gniazdowski V, Lessler J, Sauer L, Schatz MC, Evans JD, Ray SC, Timp W, Mostafa HH. Genomic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 during early introduction into the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area. JCI Insight. 2021 Mar 22;6(6). doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.144350. PubMed PMID: 33749660; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC8026189

Woldemeskel BA, Kwaa AK, Garliss CC, Laeyendecker O, Ray SC, Blankson JN. Healthy donor T cell responses to common cold coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2. J Clin Invest. 2020 Dec 1;130(12):6631-6638. doi: 10.1172/JCI143120. PubMed PMID: 32966269; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7685719

Newman RM, Lamers SL, Weiner B, Ray SC, Colgrove RC, Diaz F, Jing L, Wang K, Saif S, Young S, Henn M, Laeyendecker O, Tobian AA, Cohen JI, Koelle DM, Quinn TC, Knipe DM. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of Geographically Diverse Clinical Isolates of Herpes Simplex Virus 2. Journal of Virology. 2015; 89(16):8219-32

Bailey JR, Wasilewski LN, Snider AE, El-Diwany R, Osburn WO, Keck Z, Foung SK, Ray SC. Naturally selected hepatitis C virus polymorphisms confer broad neutralizing antibody resistance. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2015; 125(1):437-47


Use of consensus sequence as vaccine antigen to enhance recognition of virulent viral variants
Patent # USPTO 8168771 | 05/01/2012

Synthetic hepatitis C genome and methods of making and use
Patent # USPTO 9512183 | 12/06/2016

Synthetic representative HCV subtypes, including a 1a and 1b genome, dubbed Bole1a and Bole1b, are provided using an inventive method of Bayesian phylogenetic tree analysis, ancestral sequence reconstruction and covariance analysis. Bole1a branches centrally among 390 full-genome sequences used in its design, a carefully curated 143 sequence full-genome dataset, and separate genomic regions including an independent set of 214 E1E2 sequences from a Baltimore cohort. Bole1a is phylogenetically representative of widely circulating strains. Full genome non-synonymous diversity comparison and 9-mer peptide coverage analysis showed that Bole1a is able to provide more coverage (94% and 78% respectively) than any other sequence in the dataset including H77, a traditional reference sequence. Bole1a also provides unsurpassed epitope coverage when compared to all known T cell epitopes.

Aggregation-assisted separation of plasma from whole blood
Patent # USPTO 10788480 | 09/29/2020

Methods for separating blood plasma from whole blood in the absence of performing centrifugation are provided. The method combines mechanical filtration and blood cell aggregation and is adapted for use in POC clinical testing.

Contact for Research Inquiries

Center for Viral Hepatitis Research
855 N. Wolfe St, Rangos bldg
Baltimore, MD 21205 map

Academic Affiliations & Courses

Graduate Program Affiliation

Immunology, Pharmacology

Courses and Syllabi

  • Genes To Society 1 - Immunology (ME.800.639)
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Activities & Honors


  • Elected Fellow, Infectious Diseases Society of America, 2008
  • Elected member and JHU Institutional Representative, American Society of Clinical Investigation, 2009
  • Professors' Award for Excellence in Teaching, Basic and Clinical Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 2012
  • Elected Fellow, American College of Physicians, 2016
  • Elected Member, Interurban Clinical Club, 2016


  • American Association for the Study of Liver Disease
  • American College of Physicians
  • American Society for Microbiology
  • American Society for Virology
  • American Society of Clinical Investigation
  • European Association for the Study of the Liver
  • Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • International Society for Computational Biology
  • Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution
  • Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics

Patient Ratings & Comments

The Patient Rating score is an average of all responses to physician related questions on the national CG-CAHPS Medical Practice patient experience survey through Press Ganey. Responses are measured on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being the best score. Comments are also gathered from our CG-CAHPS Medical Practice Survey through Press Ganey and displayed in their entirety. Patients are de-identified for confidentiality and patient privacy.

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